Contents

This tool converts Symbol Rate (Symbols per second) to Bandwidth (Hz).

**Calculator**

To use the tool enter

- Bit rate – use the drop down menu to select the appropriate units
- Number of Bits per symbol
- Forward Error Correction (FEC)

Bandwidth to Symbol Rate

**Formula**

**Bandwidth = Symbol Rate/FEC = (Bit rate)/(FEC*Number of Bits per symbol)**

**Example Calculation**

For a bit rate of 5600 kbps, 3 bits per symbol and 3/4 FEC, the symbol rate is equal to 2489 kilo-symbols per second. The required bandwidth is 2489 kHz.

**Background**

**What is Symbol Rate?**

**Symbol rate**, also known as baud rate, is a fundamental parameter in digital communications that defines the number of symbols transmitted per unit of time in a communication channel.

Symbols are discrete and often represent different data values, such as bits or characters, depending on the modulation scheme used. Symbol rate is typically measured in symbols per second (sps) or baud.

**What is Bandwidth?**

In communication systems, **bandwidth** refers to the range of frequencies that can be used to transmit data over a communication channel or medium. It is one of the fundamental parameters that describe the capacity and performance of a communication system.

Bandwidth is typically measured in hertz (Hz) and represents the difference between the highest and lowest frequencies within a given frequency range.

**What is FEC?**

**FEC** stands for Forward Error Correction, which is a technique used in data communication and digital signal processing to enhance the reliability of data transmission over unreliable or noisy communication channels.

FEC involves adding redundant information (error-correcting codes) to the transmitted data in such a way that errors or corruption of data can be detected and corrected by the receiver without the need for retransmission of the data.

The Forward Error Correction (FEC) is usually expressed as a fraction; i.e., 1/2, 3/4, etc. In the case of 1/2 FEC, for every bit of data, 2 bits are transmitted – one of which is for error correction.

**Related Calculators and Posts**

- Baud Rate to Frequency
- Baud Rate Error
- Bit rate to Bandwidth – (using the Shannon-Hartley Theorem)
- QAM Symbol Rate and Bandwidth