**kbps** or** kilobits-per-second** is a measure of data throughput.

**Hz** is a measure of Frequency Bandwidth.

The tool answers the question: How much bandwidth (in Hz) is required to transfer a user-specified number of kilobits every second in a communication system?

Enter:

- Data rate in kbps
- Signal-to-Noise ratio (default value is 10 dB)

**Example Calculations**

For a communication channel with 10 dB SNR, it takes 2900 Hz or 2.9 kHz of Bandwidth to transfer 1 kbps.

As the SNR is increased to 20 dB for instance, it takes about half the bandwidth – 1500 Hz or 1.5 kHz.

???? As the signal to noise ratio is increased, it improves the reliability of the communication medium. Hence a smaller amount of bandwidth (Hz) is required to transmit the same amount of data (measured in kbps).

**Formula**

To calculate the bandwidth we use the Shannon-Hartley formula

**B = C/(Log _{2}(1 + S/N))**

where,

**B**is the bandwidth in Hz**C**is the throughput in bits per second**S/N**is the Signal-to-Noise ratio

**Key Assumptions**

The Shannon-Hartley formula makes the following assumptions:

- The noise is white Gaussian. In other words it does not consider the effect of Fading which can cause additional signal losses.
- The throughput in bit-per-second is an
**upper bound**. It represents an ideal condition that can be achieved with an arbitrarily low error rate.