This tool calculates the digital output of an analog-to-digital converter (ADC).

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**Background**

**Analog-to-digital Converter** (ADC) as the name suggests, is an electronic circuit that is used to convert an analog input signal to a digital value.

A number in this format that can be processed by a microcontroller or digital circuit.

The ADC performs this conversion by using a combination of discrete electronics, such as resistors and capacitors, to convert the continuous analog signal into a series of discrete digital values. This process involves charging a capacitor with the input analog voltage and then holding it at this value for a specified minimum time duration.

The analog value is measured and converted to a digital value using a process called quantization.

The resolution of an ADC is determined by the number of discrete values it can represent. For example, an 8-bit ADC can represent 2^{8} = 256 discrete values, while a 16-bit ADC can represent 65,536 discrete values.

**Overall, the ADC plays a crucial role at the interface between analog and digital systems.**

**Calculator**

To use this tool, enter:

- Analog Input Voltage
- Reference Voltage
- Number of bits in the ADC

## Formula

The digital output from an ADC is given by the following formula for an **n**-bit ADC.

**Digital output = 2 ^{n} * (Analog Input Voltage)/(Analog Reference Voltage)**

*The input voltage cannot exceed the reference level*

**Example**

Consider a 10 bit ADC. The reference voltage is 5 Volt and the input voltage is 1 Volt. The digital output is 205. The binary equivalent of this number output from the ADC is 11001101.

**Related Calculators**

Use the following tools to find the

- Analog resolution of an ADC
- Signal-to-Noise Ratio of an ADC

Both depend on the number of bits.

Sampling Rate – What does it mean and how is it calculated?

ADC sampling rate – The time it takes in an ADC (Analog-to-Digital Converter) for a sample of an Analog input to be converted to its equivalent Digital value.

## Notes on **Other Learning Resources**

- iMoox has a YouTube video on ADCs that’s worth watching

- Texas Instruments ADC product page – delve deeper into commercial ADCs, specifications and application notes to learn more about them

- ADCs are in almost every electronic product we use. From smartphones to TVs. Here is a product that converts analog stereo audio signals to Coaxial and Toslink outputs simultaneously.

- If you are an electronic hobbyist and want to learn more about ADCs we recommend getting an Arduino as it has built-in ADCs.