ADC Calculator

This tool calculates the digital output of an analog-to-digital converter (ADC) for a given analog input level.


To use this tool, enter:

  • Analog Input Voltage
  • Reference Voltage
  • Number of bits in the ADC




The digital output from an ADC is given by the following formula for an n-bit ADC.

Digital output = 2n * (Analog Input Voltage)/(Analog Reference Voltage)

The input voltage cannot exceed the reference level


Consider a 10 bit ADC. The reference voltage is 5 Volt and the input voltage is 1 Volt. The digital output is 205. The binary equivalent of this number output from the ADC is 11001101.


Analog-to-digital Converter (ADC) as the name suggests, is an electronic circuit that is used to convert an analog input signal to a digital value.

A number in this format that can be processed by a microcontroller or digital circuit.

The ADC performs this conversion by using a combination of discrete electronics, such as resistors and capacitors, to convert the continuous analog signal into a series of discrete digital values. This process involves charging a capacitor with the input analog voltage and then holding it at this value for a specified minimum time duration.

The analog value is measured and converted to a digital value using a process called quantization.

👉 Try the Max Quantization Error Calculator

Quantization error

The resolution of an ADC is determined by the number of discrete values it can represent. For example, an 8-bit ADC can represent 28 = 256 discrete values, while a 16-bit ADC can represent 65,536 discrete values.

Overall, the ADC plays an important role at the interface between analog and digital systems.

Related Calculators

Use the following tools to find the

Both depend on the number of bits.

Sampling Rate – What does it mean and how is it calculated?

ADC sampling rate – From the time it takes in an ADC (Analog-to-Digital Converter) for a sample of an Analog input to be converted to its equivalent Digital value.

Notes on Other Learning Resources

  • iMoox has a YouTube video on ADCs that’s worth watching

  • ADCs are in almost every electronic product we use. From smartphones to TVs. Here is a product that converts analog stereo audio signals to Coaxial and Toslink outputs simultaneously.

Musou RCA Analog to Digital Optical Toslink Coaxial Audio Converter Adapter with Optical Cable

Arduino UNO REV3 [A000066]