# PWM to Voltage Calculator

This tool converts the Pulse Width Modulation duty cycle to an analog voltage level

## Calculator

Enter

• Supply Voltage (Volt)
• Duty Cycle (%)

## Formula

To convert PWM (Pulse Width Modulation) signal to an analog voltage, a simple formula based on the duty cycle of the PWM signal and the supply voltage can be used.

Vout​= Vsupply ​× (Duty Cycle​)/100

where

• Vout is the average output voltage,
• Vsupply is the supply voltage, and
• Duty Cycle is the percentage of time the PWM signal is high in one cycle.

## What are PWM Signals?

Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) signals are digital signals used to control the power supplied to electrical devices, and the duty cycle is the fraction or percentage of one period in which a signal or system is active.

## Example Calculation

If you have a PWM signal with a duty cycle of 50% and a supply voltage of 12V, the average output voltage can be calculated as follows:

Vout​= 12 ​× (50​)/100

This means that a PWM signal with a 50% duty cycle, using a 12V supply, will have an average output voltage of 6V.

To achieve a continuous analog output from a PWM signal, a low-pass filter – consisting of a resistor and a capacitor – is often used to smooth out the signal.